As a matter of fact, the reader has the difficult task to re-member all the different pieces in order to have an accurate view of a collective destiny. The story of the characters, the relation between the narrator and its creations, the time of Estonia after the fall of Communism and the perception of the Greek crisis with the quest of a desperate north which would provide more safety are in the centre of both novels reflect the important social transformations of the two countries. The paper will introduce the French review Socialisme ou Barbarie. The idea was to criticize the political situation under the Cold war with two bureaucratic modes of socialization, the Eastern bloc USSR and the Western bloc.
The paper analyzes the way the review worked as a political movement and how the internal discussions affected its profile. The dissent with Claude Lefort in is a turning point when the review tried to be a revolutionary political party. To deal with the question, the structure of the political movement will be analyzed in terms of resources, leadership and international relations before analyzing the relation between ideology and strategy. Last but not least, the relations between other reviews such as Arguments will be studied in order to understand the role of left reviews in France during the sixties.
A quand remontent-elles? Preuve en est la gestion des relations internationales. Nous vivons entre deux mondes, le moderne et le traditionnel. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit giltden Institutionen und Akteuren der zwischenstaatlichen Zusammenarbeit,den Wirtschaftsbeziehungen sowie gesellschaftlichen Fragen. The principal goal of this chapter is to understand how the geno-cide issue has been dealt with in the political discussions held in two different national traditions: France and Sweden.
The idea is to com-pare two national narratives on the genocide. I shall adopt a discursive methodology Thornborrow and Coates 6 , analysing how repre-sentatives in both countries put this issue on the political agenda. Who killed whom? Who is the aggressor and who the victim?
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What categories do these political debates produce in these historical events? What are the main terms used in both national political debates? The controversy gives an unparalleled opportunity to highlight a historical question. The material is composed of legislative texts that illustrate the state of the political debates on this question. Both countries experienced a wave of immigration due to the events of The analysis of parliamentary texts is all the more important as it reveals the construction of new categories to qualify what happened.
The election has brought a period of instability where a political majority will be hard to come by. A new law on the Digital Republic was voted in France at the end of It focused on the definition of digital rights, Net neutrality and the idea of a public service of data. The law was coproduced by the citizens as it was possible to amend the bill proposal on the Net.
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In fact, it was the first time in France that a bill was digitally amended by citizens. The chapter aims at analyzing the participatory method as a law-making option in France. The question is to understand whether or not this participatory method challenges the traditional way of governing in France. Is it the implementation of a citizen control of the law-making process or a single communicative tool? The first part of the chapter describes the relations between the European and the national contexts of this law.
The second part of the chapter explains the participatory tool, introduces the actors and analyzes the impact of the method on the law-making process. The third part of the chapter studies the emergence of an open government data in France. This digital strategy is promoted in order to win the competition of digital nations Premat, Smarter as the new Urban Agenda: a comprehensive view of the 21st century city, —, Moreover, the last part of the chapter confronts this new open data strategy with the surveillance laws voted in that control the Internet to trace suspicious behaviors.
Digital globalization is not as uniformous as one may believe. If Literatures do not all have possibilities to concern a broad audience, some categories of Literatures in minority languages still survive thanks to social media and other ways of circulation.
This is the case for Innu Literature that within a community of Many writers of the First Nations use networks to reinforce the knowledge and the translation of their works. The article introduces strategies used by writers, publishing houses and autochtonous media to have a stronger echo. The first nations have capacities to survive and create forms of language and culture revitalization.
Nous noterons J. Rousseau is often seen as a reference for a political system characterized by direct democratic mechanisms. At the same time, the French republican tradition considered him as a source of inspiration with the definition of the general interest. Rousseau referred to provinces where democratic tools were experienced such as Corsica or Poland.
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How can we get back to empowered citizens? Do we need to have a new democratic revolution to avoid the tendency to transfer sovereignty to a small group of people acting for the others? The introduction to the first issue of the Nordic Journal of Francophone Studies revisits issues related to the aesthetics and classifications of Francophone literature. The aim is to understand both the transformations of the literary canon and the editorial strategies that promote Francophone writers.
Two months in, the presidency of Emmanuel Macron has him welcoming Donald Trump to Paris to celebrate the beginning of a war instead of bringing the people back into politics. So far, his administration does not look good for citizen participation. President Macron's political victory seems similar to this literary metaphor. The French sociologist Gabriel Tarde is well-known for his theory of social imitation. The article deals with the narrative of this history and focuses on the special writing of the end of a cycle. How do human beings react in extreme circumstances when one major source of energy disappears?
How do they change their traditional world vision? What are the main values that we can save in order to ensure the revival of humanity?
It will answer the following question:is it possible to see in the francophone Literature a tendency to de-structure the text in order to make it possible for a new plurality to emerge? Literature re-members culture as it points out the dark side of the Algerian history, it makes the readers understand the current situation and the heritage of the past. One year ago, Emanuel Macron was elected president and promised to reform the French constitution and strengthen democracy.
During his presidential campaign in , Macron proposed a reform of Parliament aimed at making legislative power more efficient. Source criticism is a strong challenge in higher education as many students do not pay sufficient attention to the diversity of sources, they want quick facts that they can reuse.
By not being able to distinguish the quality of texts on the net, they clip and paste sentences that they collect in different documents. It is not possible to substitute academic learning with patch-writing strategies Pecorari, The case of Wikipedia is interesting as many students use this immediate information that they find on Internet Tkacz, Consequently, it is important to collect information on their attitudes to be able to see if there are any common strategies that students have. In order to define these strategies, it can be appropriate to ask students to work with Wikipedia articles and evaluate the information that they find.
An experiment has been made in in a class of French as a foreign language at Stockholm University where students were asked to work with some articles of Wikipedia. Students had to learn basic facts by using the information contained in those pages. In this perspective, the analysis of sources is the first step to acquire a mode of critical thinking in the Academy Davies, The article aims at studying these reactions to see how the students in a foreign language might use and reflect about a source that they immediately meet when they look for empirical facts, figures or references on the Net.
The results of this empirical investigation conducted during Spring will be presented. The second purpose would be to see whether students could possibly use collaborative strategies as learning tools Kalin, in order to avoid plagiarism Chankova, Should the Academy pay more attention to Wikipedia sources or consider them as a form of poor and quick knowledge? Are there any recommendations that can be delivered so that a better understanding of sources can help to avoid plagiarism? Last but not least, can this study based on quick facts be applied to formal knowledge?
The hypothesis is that the Fanonian discourse works as a travelling memory for many African leaders since the independence. Preliminary results attest to the continued relevance of the Fanonian dual emphasis on the individual subjective and the social and, as his comment to Sartre, the specificity of the Fanonian perspective on the racial relationship entrenched in a colonial setting. We trace what we consider the erasure and invisibilization of the everyday racism and provide examples of more recent resurgences of Fanonian discourses and practices in contemporary social and political movements.
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We identify a renewed interest for the dual emphasis on the individual and the social and recognition of a reproduction of the colonial alienation and segregation in globalized late modernity. Wikipedia is often seen as an unusable tool because it only concerns secondary sources. There is also a critical trend in the university that does not want to treat Wikipedia as a possible learning platform. For new students, Wikipedia may be a way of adapting to the academic world.
The purpose is to show how to use Wikipedia in language learning, partly to learn to write in another language, partly to learn how to handle sources. The presentation will show concrete examples of how to use Wikipedia as an effective learning platform to contribute to a form of open academy. They will also discuss the ways in which these concepts are rooted in the Caribbean context, but also what made them travel so well and connect with social and political movements far beyond this region.
The article proposes to elaborate an anthropology of the Cameroonian State in order to understand the political stakes of the last presidential election of and the failure of the multiparty system introduced at the beginning of the s. From a postcolonial perspective, it seems that Cameroon reorganized itself around a unitary Francophone State to consolidate the current power of the elite.
The article describes the mechanisms of this reification by relying on the constitutional texts and the institutions protecting the status quo. It also discusses the geopolitical challenges of the terrorist group Boko Haram and the crisis of the English-speaking part. These threats tend to strengthen the unitary and security State to the detriment of a political debate on the future of Cameroon.
The article examines the way the writers of the First Nations in Canada deal with the issue of survivance which implies a collective resilience. If both writers share the paradigm of decoloniality, their aesthetics remains classical with the use of a minimalist style to express the beauty of the Innu way of life. The purpose of the article is to analyze the characteristics of an experience of institutional violence suffered by a woman who became president of the University of the West Indies and Guiana.
The use of creative non-fiction allows to denounce the systematic exclusion of women from the spheres of power in the West Indies. The purpose of this article is to analyze the philosophy of values developed by Cornelius Castoriadis from his theory of the imaginary institution of societies. By understanding the emergence of imaginary significations, it is possible to identify their manifestations through the representations, the affects and the intentions of individuals.
In this context, values correspond to a series of significations that motivate the conduct of individuals. In fact, in a specific society, individuals believe in symbols that make sense for them. The presentation of the values does not reflect a moral project, but rather a socio-political construction that must be carefully described in order to identify the alteration of values over time. The article explores the way in which Castoriadis poses the problem of the persistence of past values with the risk of depending on established norms without being able to really transform them.
In this perspective, Castoriadis refers to a fundamental value which is that of autonomy capable of questioning existing imaginaries.