Examines the historical and cultural symbolism of the hand cart in Iran, with an attempt to explain its continued use today. Cities and Technology. Inventions That Failed.
London: Michael O'Mara, Hero or victim? Technical innovation as a social transgression in Mexico. Analyzes the cultural significance of "commercializing" the traditional crafts beginning in the s in the upper Balsas Valley of Mexico. Stokes, eds. Science, Technology and Political Change Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
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It remained the sole party in power and found itself faced with a dilemma. On the one hand, the left-wing opposition and the democratic forces had been stifled; on the other, the conservative forces and the traditional mainstays of power aspired to a return to peace and order. Against the backdrop of a public opinion crisis and an increase of right-wing criticism of Nazi policy, Hitler was faced with a double front of criticism. The internal front, inside the party, was embodied by the exceedingly powerful SA with its one million members, which regarded itself as nationalist, socialist and revolutionary; it was not hostile to Hitler, but rather to the right wing of the party and to the conservative elites.
The external front was close to the government Von Papen, the vice-Chancellor, was its leader , and defined itself as conservative. During the same period, the SS took control of all the concentration camps in Germany, and Himmler appointed the Dachau camp commander, Theodor Eicke, as Inspector of the concentration camps Orth et alii , The SS then controlled the police and the concentration camps, and established itself as the main protagonist of Nazi repression policies Frei, ; Herbert, ; Bessel, These laws served to define the Jews as a targeted category.
The definition thus chosen, which was characteristic of the Sicherheitsdienst , left the issue of persons of mixed origin open. Any person with three Jewish grandparents out of the four was considered Jewish. These dynamics can be analyzed in terms of polycracy and the escalation of competition between different pressure groups, and are similar to those of the November events ibid.
The Berlin Olympic games, and the necessary preparation for them, required that unrest be kept to a minimum in Germany, and the Nazis did not undertake anything of note that year in terms of anti-Jewish policy or political repression. The Sipo-HA Sicherheitspolizei-Hauptamt , or Security Police headquarters and the SDHA headquarters of the Sicherheitsdienst , or "security department," the Nazi Party security service, also in charge of intelligence-gathering and counter-espionage were both managed by Heydrich, seconded by Werner Best.
July 12, The construction of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp began Orth et alii , March 9, A massive lockup operation was directed against people who had been found guilty and sentenced for criminal offences. Several thousands were arrested throughout the Reich. They were sent to the concentration camps, where they formed the first Kapo concentration camp guards squads Wagner, July 15, The Buchenwald construction concentration camp was built in Weimar Orth et alii , Austria was annexed; the police forces then created their first Einsatzgruppen.
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These were mobile groups of policemen in charge of taking control of public buildings, seizing archives and the files of the main security and State organizations, as well as carrying out arrests of political opponents or persons identified as dangerous. Barely two weeks after the invasion, the arrests carried out in Austria ranged into the thousands.
Following the annexation of Austria, new Jewish communities found themselves under Nazi domination. Their treatment was initially modeled on the repression that had gradually been implemented inside the Reich ; then, Austria was used as a sort of laboratory to experiment different measures taken by the Nazis Aly and Heim, This was a catch-all category comprising persons who had remained unemployed for a long time, misfits, individuals allegedly suffering from mental illnesses, alcoholics and drug addicts Wagner Gypsies were also targeted in this wave of arrests Zimmermann, During this conference, which had been called by the president of the United States, Roosevelt, most states expressed sympathy toward the Jews being persecuted, but nonetheless claimed that the social and economic situation in their countries prevented them from increasing immigration quotas.
This conference had no concrete results, and gave the Nazi leaders new evidence that in spite of their indignant objections, these states would do nothing for the German and Austrian Jewish refugees. August The Mauthausen camp was built in occupied Austria Orth et alii , August 17, A decree set up a special legal system for wartime.
This was the legal basis the Nazis used to legitimize most crimes committed during the war inside the Reich , against all opponents. September 29, The Munich conference was held. Germany invaded the Sudetenland western regions of Czechoslovakia whose population was mostly composed of ethnic Germans. October , Hearing of Polish plans to deprive Polish Jews that had emigrated to Germany of their nationality, the German police authorities arrested 17, Polish Jews and brutally expelled them toward the Polish border.
Among them was the Grynszpan family, whose son Herschel was studying in. To avenge his family, he killed the German legate in , provoking a reaction from anti-Semitic activists Adam, This was the last and biggest manifestation of what has been called Radauantisemitismus rowdy, disorderly anti-Semitism. Around one hundred people were killed directly in the pogrom, but several hundred others committed suicide out of sheer terror.
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Also, 27, Jews were temporarily sent to concentration camps. December 8, Himmler issued orders to organize a census of the Gypsies in the Reich Zimmerman, March 15, Germany invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. This was the first time the Third Reich invaded territories which were not inhabited by a majority of Germans. Thus, it became an occupying power. This invasion was associated with a very large wave of arrests Brandes, March The Einsatzkommandos formed for the conquest of Czechoslovakia and the Memel territory arrested hundreds of people Krausnick, Wilhelm, On September 1, , German troops invaded Poland.
The Polish question was essential in the Nazi mind-set and practices. From a racial point of view, Poles were seen as a mixed race, partially German in origin; this made them dangerous.
Therefore, the Nazi memory of German-Polish relations in the past was characterized by a high level of conflictuality, the last significant episode of which was the end of World War I, and the troubled period Germany experienced until To Hitler and his entourage, the objective was both to erase one of the most painful consequences of the November defeat, and to rescue volksdeutsch communities undergoing racial and identity dilution.
Hitler used an attack upon a radio station at Gleiwitz, on the German border a ploy which had been fabricated by the Gestapo , as a pretext in order to attack Poland. The invasion had been carefully planned and was directed from the Reich territory and from Pomerania by two armored forces, which carried out a pincer movement in order to surround the insufficiently armed Polish troops.
The German combat techniques and strategic choices made this first campaign a deadly war. Civilians were a potential target from the beginning, either through the bombing of urban and industrial centers, or though the aggressive practices of the German infantry. For example, it was in this context that the Einsatzgruppen carried out their first killings. In August-September , a third phase of Nazi violence began. Its specificity was due to the following factors:.
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Thus, eugenics, racial and geographic reorganization, and planned murder were combined to give Nazi mass violence a dimension hitherto unknown throughout history for this interpretation, see Burrin, ; Aly, ; Browning, ; Brayard, However, after six weeks, the Einsatzgruppen deployed in Poland had killed around 12, people Krausnick, Wilhelm, ; Rossino, The Reichssicherheitshauptamt was a further step in the process of centralization and rationalization of the central organizations involved in the SS repressive apparatus.
The economic and personnel management services of the Kripo, Gestapo and SD were merged, while Heydrich re-defined the allocation of duties between the Gestapo and the SD. Poland became the test case for this scheme. October 7, Hitler entrusted Himmler with planning and coordinating population transfers. Konrad Meyer-Heitling, who was an Agronomy professor at the University of Berlin, and responsible for the geographical planning of Germanization Aly, The operation was cut short for logistical reasons Aly, This improvised procedure turned out to be a disaster leading to terrible suffering for the deportees, many of whom died; they were either killed by the SS or died of exhaustion, exposure or starvation Safrian, October 26, Forced labor was imposed on the Jews of Poland.
The dynamics of occupation and economic exploitation were being established Madajcyk, Adolf Eichmann, who had been recalled from Austria, was put in charge of it. The document proposed to Germanize the conquered Polish territories in 25 years, mostly through the expulsion of populations. Eichmann was its logistics specialist Aly, ; Safrian, This was the institution in charge of the operational dimension of Germanization : it was supposed to coordinate the expulsion of non-Germans, and the settlement of Volksdeutsche ethnic Germans in the occupied territories.
January 30, Heydrich held a conference on the subject of the expulsion of Jews and the evacuation of populations. Within the RSHA, this group was in charge of planning population transfers. Amt IIIB constituted the last element of the central police administration in charge of the occupied territories and of planning, and as of , of deportation and extermination operations as well Aly, This was the first failure of the Gemanization institutions. At this point, executions of Polish political opponents began in waves Madajczyk, This was the local SD agency in charge of the expulsion of Polish populations in order to leave room for German colonists, in the framework of policies to Gemanize the occupied territories.
May 7, New expulsion operations began, deporting people to the Government-General of Poland. May 10, Germany attacked Western Europe. Belgium and Holland were occupied. At the same period, the Reich authorities had the Gypsies of western Germany deported to the Government-General of Poland Zimmerman, May 19, The first instructions were given to close the Warsaw ghetto.
They were carried out by late June. Since a territorial solution by way of deportation did not seem feasible in the eastern territories, the Nazi leaders were starting to look for a solution outside Europe. The points covered in this discussion involved logistics, not the killing processes. It is impossible to rule out the possibility that they discussed the issues of Polish Jews in poor health, who could not be sent to Madagascar see Aly and Heim, July Sick Jews in German facilities were systematically assassinated, in the framework of Aktion T4.
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Late July Bruno Streckenbach was entrusted with estimating the size of Jewish populations in the territories dominated by the Reich. September The Battle of England came to a close. October 20, Instructions were issued to make the organization of the Warsaw Ghettto more systematic. October , Jews from Baden were expelled from Germany and sent to southern France. Population transfers took place in Alsace-Lorraine France.
Between October and November , a total of , Volksdeutsche were repatriated to the Reich Aly, January 8, The leaders of the RSHA held a meeting during which Heydrich announced the deportation of , Jews and Poles from the incorporated western Polish territories, toward the Government-General. March 1, Himmler inspected Auschwitz , a concentration camp essentially used for Polish political prisoners, and ordered its expansion.